Volume 34, No. 3, 2017
The Anti-Semitic Roots of the “Liberal News Media” Critique
By William Gillis
Anti-Semitic beliefs that associated Jews, especially New York Jews, with the news media helped create the idea of a “liberal news media.” Anti-Semites around the world have linked Jews with “control” of the news media since the nineteenth century. In the postwar United States, anti-Semitic critiques of the news media were closely linked with Cold War-era anticommunism, Christian conservatism, and reaction to the civil rights movement by white conservatives. Anti-Semites of the postwar period were usually fervent Christian anticommunists who believed that Jews secretly manipulated and masterminded the news in order to promote the civil rights movement, destroy the Christian United States, and pave the way for communist world government.
Promulgating the Kingdom: Social Gospel Muckracker Josiah Strong
By Christina Littlefield and Falon Opsahl
Social gospel leaders in the United States and England edited newspapers to educate the masses on key social issues in hopes of ushering in the kingdom of God, both prior to and alongside their secular muckraking peers. U.S. Congregationalist Josiah Strong, much maligned for the pro-Anglo-Saxon nature of his domestic missions book Our Country, spent his last seventeen years documenting the problems cities faced and possible solutions. He fought for factory safety, as well as eight-hour days, living wages, worker’s compensation benefits, and social secretaries to care for employees’ needs. An examination of Strong’s journals, Social Engineering, Social Service, and Gospel of the Kingdom, shatters stereotypes about the reformer and shows how he used muckraking techniques to promote social reform.
In the aftermath of World War I and the Peace Conference of 1919, the American public’s interest in foreign affairs increased. The Wilson administration’s wartime program, the New Diplomacy, contributed to this interest. It called for open diplomacy among statesmen and diplomats in the settlement of international conflicts, and press access to and publicity of their deliberations. The goal was an internationalized public opinion that would aid both concepts. With the prospect of an enlarged role for the United States in foreign affairs, prominent newspaper publishers and editors supported a robust coverage of foreign news, marked by a modern narrative consisting of the facts and an interpretation of their meaning. The New York Evening Post’s David Lawrence and Simeon Strunsky promoted the New Diplomacy and explained its ramifications for American foreign policy and press relations.
Filtering History: Photojournalists’ Access to U.S. Presidents, 1977 to 2009
By Erin K. Coyle and Nicole Smith Dahmen
Photojournalists assigned to the White House strive to provide an independent record of the president. Each presidential administration determines whether and how photojournalists may receive access to photograph the president. Narratives from professional organizations and interviews of photojournalists reveal that photojournalists’ access to each president varied between 1977 and 2009. During the administrations of Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush, photojournalists suggested the White House managed each president’s image by determining whether and under what circumstances photojournalists could photograph each president. The administrations of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush took additional steps to manage the president’s image by releasing pictures taken by White House staff. Those practices limited photojournalists’ abilities to provide the public with independently captured images of each president.
New Horizons for Teaching Journalism History: A Multimedia Approach
By David Dowling and John Haman
Free Speech and Unfree News: The Paradox of Press Freedom in America
By Sam Lebovic
Reviewed by Karie Hollerbach
Sympathy, Madness, and Crime: How Four Nineteenth-Century Journalists Made the Newspaper Women’s Business
By Karen Roggenkamp
Reviewed by Michael Buozis
Gutenberg’s Europe: The Book and the Invention of Western Modernity
By Frédéric Barbier
Reviewed by W. Joe Watson
American Journalists in the Great War
By Chris Dubbs
Reviewed by Willie R. Tubbs
The War Beat, Europe: The American Media at War Against Nazi Germany
By Steven Casey
Reviewed by Wallace B. Eberhard
The History of Fashion Journalism
By Kate Nelson Best
Reviewed by Dolores Flamiano
Media Nation: The Political History of News in Modern America
By Bruce J. Schulman and Julian E. Zelizer, eds.
Reviewed by James McPherson
Tangled Bylines: A Father and Son Cover the Twentieth Century
By Clyde H. Farnsworth
Reviewed by: Pamela A. Brown
Digital Media Reviews
Newsgames – Journalism Innovation through Game Design
Reviewed by Juli James
Reviewed by Elisabeth Fondren